Where poison water seeps through the earth

Written by  Friday, 02 April 2010 02:00
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Mariette Liefferink calls it the smell of death. And after all the years she has spent fighting mining pollution, the environmental activist doesn’t even gag at the strong stench of sulphur wafting from the old mining shaft behind her.

“It’s the smell of death because this acid mine drainage (AMD) causes death to aquatic life”, says Liefferink, gesturing at the source of the overpowering sulphuric stench: a toxic waterfall in Randfontein from which thousands of litres of untreated mine water, carrying dangerous heavy metals and uranium, started gushing this week.

“It’s been proven. It’s not fanciful opinion. It seeps into your soil, causes the loss of agriculture potential and releases heavy metals that are toxic and radioactive, into the environment.”

This is the newest environmental disaster to strike the West Rand, scarred by more than a century of mining. Here AMD first started bubbling to the surface in 2002, on land now owned by Rand Uranium. As then, the new deluge of contaminated water is flowing into the already poisoned Tweelopies Spruit. Ultimately, it will reach the Limpopo and Vaal river systems, threatening ancient fossil sites in its path.

Liefferink, chief executive of the Federation for a Sustainable Environment, reserves her blame for the government and mining companies who have done little to stem the toxic tide. “We did all the presentations to its task team (on mine closure), lobbied in parliament but the government did not come to the party.”

AMD is the highly toxic and radioactive water leaching from the underground voids of abaondoned and closed mines. As gold mines have ceased operations, the water table has returned to pre-mining levels, bringing with it rising water with a low pH, which is tainted by salts and elevated heavy metals.

Since the 20002 decant, around 15 megalitres of AMD has decanted daily into rivers, polluting the boreholes of downstream users, she says.

The government ordered mining groups DRD Gold, Rand Uranium and Mintails to halt the surface flow of this acidic water by pumping it out and treating it before discharging it into nearby streams and rivers. But DRD Gold, accountable for 44 percent of the polluted load, stopped pumping about a year ago and insists it is accountable only for 2 percent. Rand Uranium, tasked with a 46 percent share of the problem, can no longer cope with the huge volumes.

“It’s a hopeless situation that’s resulted in an irreversible environmental catastrophe,” says Liefferink. “Underground, an unqualified volume of untreated AMD is flowing into the Zwartkrans compartment, which hosts the Cradle of Humankind.”

Liefferink is a glamorous 57-year-old grandmother; draped in a delicately-embroidered outfit. In these desolate surroundings, she seems almost incongruous.

As usual, she is trudging through the dumps in high heels. “I must be the laughing stock. But I‘ve never fallen once,” she beams, proudly.

Fake earrings dangle from her ears – she boycotts gold. “It would be immoral for me to wear gold. It’s dirty. All those costs from mining have been externalized onto society and the environment.”

The Witwatersrand, home to the world’s biggest gold and uranium mining basin, is where mining operations have “raped the earth for its gold and uranium, left beind gaping holes in the ground, polluted river sources and disrupted and left unenriched communities”, she says.

AMD is its most harmful legacy.

“The decant in 2002 was untreated for several years. It caused a depletion of dolomite in tow and half years 0 under nuormal circumstances, this would’ve taken millions of years.”

Present mining companies, though, seem resentful they have to foot the bill for a historical problem they did not cereate.

Rand Uranium’s Sarel Keller says it spends about R2 million a month pumping and partially treating the acidic water.

Although the company is no involved in “last-ditch attempts to tkeep the water at bay”, it’s fighting a losing battle, says Liefferink. “The problem is that now they (Rand Uranium) will face liabilities (from downstream water users) but they’ve been pumping their share.

“DRD and the government must subsidise now because this is a disaster. It was a disaster in the happening that has now become palpable. You can touch it, see it and smell it.”

Keller, an environmental manager, hopes lessons can be learned from the AMD decants on the West Rand to prevent the AMD decants expected to arise from the central and eastern mining basins within the next two years, which will be catastrophic, according to experts.

Rand Uranium is now forced to pump even more AMD into the nearby Robinson Lake, where the levels of radioactive uranium are 40 000 times higher than normal. This is the source of the Tweelopies Spruit, flowing into the Krugersdorp Game Reserve, where reports have spotlighted miscarriages and high mortality among wildlife.

Liefferink is worried the decant will also affect eh heavily-mined Wonderfonteinspruit catchment, which flows between Randfontein and Potchefstroom, and is significantly contaminated with heavy metal and radioactive contamination.

“We’re sitting on a time bomb. At the Wonderfonteinspruit, all reports show there are elevated heavy metals in the sediment, like cadmium, cobalt, and uranium. Now with the AMD seeping in, it will mobilize and (make soluble) the heavy metals.

“The end water users are Potchefstroom. These are people who don’t have Rand Water and depend on the Wonderfonteinspruit as a clean water source. People dependent on stream water, river water or boreholes are severely affected.”

She points out a farm, bordering Rand Uranium close to Robinso Lake, where livestock and horses were farmed. But when an AMD spill struck the land about a year ago, up to 100 of the farmer’s animals died, mostly the newborn and young. The horses breathed in the mining dust as they exercised too.

Today, the signs advertising his business are already turning to rust. “He was eventually made an offer by the mine”, Liefferink explains. “We had the water analysed for toxic metals and it was found unfit for human and animal consumption. That’s another problem because the onus for the burden of proof is on the landowners and that is almost always impossible.

Nearby, the wind blows eerily through Amberfield Estate, a multi-million rand luxury development funded by Standard Bank. A huge tailings dam operated by Rand Uranium looms over the Tuscan-style development, which now resembles a ghost-town after Liefferink stopped it in its tracks last year. Its manicured lawns are overgrown.

“It was built on mined land within the 500 m buffer zone of a tailings dam. That is inappropriate development.

“These poor people (the elderly buyers) had no knowledge it was on radioactive land. There was no risk assessment or environmental impact assessment done. The developer is no bankrupt.”

On dry, windy days, the area is covered in a blanket of fine dust that tests have found spreads as far as Tasmania.

Groups like Earthlife Africa Johannesburg question whether mining companies should offer a public apology for the environmental and social damage of the past and are toying with the concept of reparations to affected communities.

To overcome AMD, the area’s mining groups, including DRD Gold are pinning their hopes on the R2 billion solution proposed by the Western Utilities Corporation (WUC), an entity they created to treat AMD to a potable and drinking water standard. WUC hopes to be online in 2012, pledging it will comply with water quality standards.

DRD Gold spokesman James Duncan, says “While everyone is saying x and y amount is your responsibility, no one is seeing the wood for the trees. Here we have the long-term solution, but every time we turn around, there’s another top expert with an alternative.”

Critics include water researcher Professor Anthony Turton, who believes several other technically viable alternatives exist. “None have been given a chance to present their case to a decision-maker in a transparent way”, he contends.

“International best practice in the management of hazardous waste dictates that all toxic waste streams should be kept separate and treated at source. WUC brings these waste streams together, cascading radioactivity from the Western Basin, where the levels are high, into the Central Basin, where the levels are much lower.”

“The public has not been consulted and will be forced to buy water treated by the most rudimentary of all processes. Remember, we’re talking of hazardous radioactive waste being turned into drinking water. The mines created the problem and now they want to walk away from it with no possibility of future liability”, Turton worries.

But a solution is needed urgently, Liefferink believes. “We’re looking for a sustainable solution with immediate implementation because it’s unfair and unethical for downstream users and an ecology which has no voice, to suffer these impacts while commercial companies are debating.”

The Department of Water Affairs told the Saturday Star it would release a statement on AMD next week.

There is a sense of resignation about Liefferink. “It’s like a road that is driven over and over by a wagon. You become hardened and desensitized…the files I’ve written on AMD, the letters I’ve sent – it must be thousands – and only Marius Keet (regional director of the Department of Water Affairs) has ever responded… If this is how the government handles environmental crises, it will lose its legitimacy.”



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The Federation for a Sustainable Environment’s ongoing role in addressing the sewage pollution in the Vaal River

‘People the same as pigs’ in the VaalBy Sheree Bega | 16 Oct 2020 Foul: Pigs root in sludge in Emfuleni municipality. (Photos: Delwyn Verasamy/M&G) Clutching her one-year-old son, Monica Ndakisa jumps onto a brick to avoid the sewage that runs like a dark stain across the passage in her home.  “We’ve lived like this for years,” she says pointing to one of the culprits: her blocked toilet, which causes sewage to pool into nearly every room of her home in Sebokeng hostel in the Vaal. “The smell is too terrible.” It’s worse outside. Her small garden is submerged in a sickly, grey sewage swamp. To stop the human waste from seeping inside, Ndakisa has built a concrete barrier at her front door. But it’s futile. “My five-year-old son was in the hospital for two weeks with severe eczema and they told me it’s because of all this sewage. It makes us cough all the time. It’s so depressing to live like this.” Samson Mokoena, of the Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance (Veja), shakes his head. “It’s chaos. You can’t allow people to live in such conditions. The government is playing with our people.” Ndakisa’s neighbour, Maphelo Apleni, has used pipes to divert the stream of sewage from his garden. “It never stops,” he says grimly. “We have a municipality [Emfuleni] that doesn’t care about us.” Mziwekaya Mokwana points at a sewage-filled furrow clogged with litter where pigs are feeding. “This is no better life,” he says. “People are the same as pigs here.” Sewage in Vaal River system  Last month, the human settlements, water and sanitation department said it would take at least another three years to minimise and eventually stop the sewage flowing into the Vaal River system. In a recent presentation, it states how “design treatment capacity is at its limit, housing development investments are delayed and there are negative environmental and health impacts”. Ageing infrastructure is to blame for sewage spillages, coupled “with a lack of operation and maintenance investment” as well as theft and vandalism.  It will cost about R2.2-billion “to have a sustainable impact on the Vaal River catchment within Emfuleni local municipality”. The department’s plan aims to safeguard infrastructure; repair the bulk network to eliminate spillages, key and critical pump stations and rising mains; refurbish wastewater treatment works “in an attempt to comply with discharge licence conditions”; and achieve operation and maintenance requirements. But Maureen Stewart, the vice-chairperson of Save the Vaal (Save) is sceptical. She says there is no political will to tackle the crisis. “These problems go back over 12 yearsand reached crisis proportions when the system collapsed in 2018. The result is some 200 million litres of raw or partially treated sewage entering the Vaal River and its tributaries daily.” Stewart warns that it’s an ecological disaster that also affects agriculture and has serious health implications for people living above and below the Vaal Barrage Reservoir, which is 64km long and used to supply Johannesburg with water but is now too polluted to do so.   She says the Emfuleni municipality has been under Gauteng’s administration since mid-2018 and, despite promises, the status quo remains — unbridled sewage pollution of the Vaal River and Emfuleni.  “The Ekurhuleni Water Care Company (Erwat) was appointed to take over in 2019 and were given funding and spent R179-million. Their contribution was to unblock pipes and remove 50 tons of rubbish from the system. This opened the pipes but, as the pump stations and the three wastewater treatment plants remain dysfunctional, there has been no improvement. Raw sewage continues to flow into the Vaal River and into the streets of Emfuleni.”  Monica Ndakisa sweeps overspill from her toilet. There was a “glimmer of hope” when Minister, Lindiwe Sisulu, visited the Vaal in January this year, assuring Save that action will be taken and that funds are earmarked in the 2020-2021 budget.  “It seems her enthusiasm has not filtered down to her department,” says Stewart. “After Erwat’s contract was not renewed, the department stated they would undertake the repairs by appointing their own contractors. Tender documents have been languishing on someone’s desk at the department since July.” Sputnik Ratau, spokesperson for the department, says the government has committed resources towards solving the sewage problem in the Vaal.  “Government sent state institutions to assist Emfuleni local municipality (ELM) in this regard; these include SANDF and Erwat. Recently, the department finalised the scope of all that needs to be done to solve the sewage problem. There are 26 work packages that will be advertised in the coming weeks for competent contractors to take part in solving the sewage challenge in the Vaal.”  The department, says Ratau, aims to have a “busy festive season” working with the appointed contractors. “In the 2020/21 financial year, the department has committed R911-million towards solving this challenge. The total investment by the department in 2020/21 financial year is R1.2-billion in the Vaal; this includes the building of additional wastewater treatment capacity and associated pump stations.” Maphelo Apleni installs pipes to drain sewage out of his garden. Before the end of the financial year Module 6 in Sebokeng water care works will be launched, “subject to no community unrest disrupting construction”. The department, Ratau says, has to take all necessary precautions to ensure that section 217 of the constitution is followed as far as procurement is concerned.  “Thus the departmental checks and balances had to be followed to the letter to ensure compliance with procurement processes. This unfortunately caused delays but was necessary.” Within the next month the department aims to advertise for all the contractors “that can assist in this challenge”. Ratau says commitment dates, including start and completion dates, “will be sent not only to Save but all interested stakeholders once the contractors are appointed. The department cannot preempt this before the appointments are made.” He says that R7-billion is required to “solve the pollution challenge in ELM. This needs to be coupled with operations and maintenance, which is a function of ELM at local government level”. Save is once again taking the government to court to enforce legislation to ensure infrastructure is repaired within phased completion dates and that sufficient funds are made available for ongoing maintenance and operation of the system by the municipality, supervised by the high court.   Veja’s Mokoena is glad the department is taking over the Vaal clean-up. “This situation was supposed to be fixed a long time ago. So much money has been squandered at the municipal level.” Rand Water’s delay Eight months. That’s how long it took Rand Water to release public water quality records for the Vaal Barrage system to a team of aquatic specialists investigating the ecological health of the river system.  In January, Aquatic Ecosystems of Africa submitted a Promotion of Access to Information Act (Paia) application to Rand Water for access to its water quality analysis data for the Vaal Barrage and downstream since 2015.  Nothing happened, it says, until Tshepang Sebulela, the Paia compliance officer from the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) intervened late last month.  New pipelines are being installed in the Vaal. In an email to Rand Water, Sebulela noted how the multiple requests for records by Aquatic Ecosystems and the Federation for a Sustainable Environment have allegedly been ignored, which in terms of Paia are deemed refusals.  “The SAHRC is greatly concerned by a large number of public institutions who provide such important services to the public who refuse to meet their basic legislative obligations,” he wrote. The records landed in the firm’s inbox on 2 October.  Aquatic Systems’ Simone Liefferink says sourcing surface water system data is becoming increasingly difficult. “It’s disturbing the data is not adequately managed, readily accessible to the public and private sectors who pay tax and other water charges for effective catchment management to be implemented.”  Rand Water did not explain the reason behind the delay.  That the information was provided in a PDF format of almost 2 000 pages “frustrates and delays” its interpretation, says Liefferink.  She and her partner, Russell Tate, began their investigation after a major fish kill in the Vaal River in mid-2018. That September they testified at the HRC’s inquiry into the contamination of the Vaal River that high levels of ammonia from the wastewater treatment works was wiping out life in the river system. A snap-shot analysis of the data provided by Rand Water shows high levels of E coli, ammonium and ammonia — key indicators of sewage pollution. Average E coli counts soared from 12 705 colony-forming units per 100ml in 2010 to more than 107 000 in 2018 and 66 923 in 2020.  “The contributing factor is clear — dysfunctional sewage treatment conveyances and treatment plants. More disturbing is the long-standing deterioration of the system that ever increases the loss of biodiversity and other essential ecological functions and human services. Yet this matter is still not treated with extreme urgency,” says Liefferink. HRC’s long-awaited report It’s taken nearly two years for the Human Rights Commission to release its report into the Emfuleni sewage crisis. “Their report has not yet been taken to parliament, nor has it been published. Why?” asks Save’s Stewart. 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Development of the National Eutrophication Strategy and Supporting Documents

Attached documents:1. DWS Eutrophication SA & GA PSC 1 BID2. PSC 1 Meeting A...